Berumfehn Moor, town-boundary Aurich, Ems-Jade-Canal, city-boundary
Emden, connection to Emden – Ley Bay, neighbouring cultural
landscapes: Krummhörn, Norderland and Harlingerland
Roughly 174 km²
East Frisian Geest-ridge
and peatland marsh, administrative district Aurich, Lower Saxony,
Origin of name:
“fallow land” (?)
Relationship/similarities with other cultural entities:
Auricherland and parts of Wangerland/Jeverland. Shares a similar
political history in the Middle Ages under Chieftain rule with other
Lower Saxony areas.
Characteristic elements and
“Aufstreck-settlements” (linear street village), peatland
colonisation, Geest landscape, fehnland, peat-cutting, dikes, dwelling
mound-villages, brick churches, pirates based in Marienhafe.
2. Geology and geography
Brookmerland is located in the western part of East Frisia, within the
administrative district of Aurich. It occupies the Geest-ridge from
Osteel in the north, to
Forlitz Blaukirchen in the
south. Whether the so-called Suderland, with the villages of Simonswolde,
Riepe, Ochtelbur and Bangstede belongs to it, is not completely certain.
Apart from Marienhafe, Aurich is mentioned in the Brookmer Letter from the
13th century as the market-town of a district. Thus the Zuder- and the
Aurich Land must have been split off as separate units at a later date. In
the Middle Ages the central peat-zone of the East Frisian Geest-ridge
dominated the east of the Brookmerland, whilst the peat-marsh extended to
the west of the Geest-ridge. This originated from the post-glacial increase
in sea level which caused the Geest-ridge peatland to be covered with clay
and water sediments. Due to the rise in the sea level the drainage of water
from the Geest was hindered and thus the growth of peat developed. Only the
rise in the sea-level in the 1st century BC stopped the growth of the peat.
In this period a small bay developed, into which the river Lay flowed.
The character of today’s area is the result of the medieval building of
dykes. The Abelitz, which
rises close to Marienhafe, drained the Brookmerland. The depression and the
Wolden area to the south, squeezed in between the high marsh of the
Krummhörn and the Geest-ridge of todays’s “Großes
Meer”, drains the area into the Bay of Sielmönken. In the end the
building of dykes in the 12th/13th century made a diversion into Lay Bay
necessary. This increased flow of water into the bay triggered the expansion
of the Lay Bay and the catastrophic loss of land in the 14th century.
The name of the cultural landscape “Brookmerland”, formerly Brokmerland
still refers in the present day to the original composition of the land as
2.2 Present landscape
The present Brookmerland consists of the administrative district of
Brookmerland and the community of Südbrookmerland. The area is dominated by
intensive agricultural use and the settlement structure of the so-called
“Aufstreck-settlements” as well as by the drainage-ditches. The Old and the
New Greetsiel sluice channels to the west, as well as the Knockster Tief to
the south drain the area. Geomorphologically Brookmerland is subdivided into
the Geest, with the peatbog areas and the peat-marsh areas off the Geest, as
well as into the marsh-areas in the former Ley Bay.
The Brookmerland is divided into almost equal parts from the north to the
south, as well as from west to east by today's federal roads, B72 and B210.
3. Landscape and settlement history
The Brookmerland has a complex settlement history, and its marsh landscape
reflects man’s continual struggle to gain and preserve the marsh for human
habitation. Characteristic monuments of the process are the dykes, fehns and
dwelling mounds. The large scale investigation of the North German mud flats,
as well as to a smaller degree the Brookmerland marsh, has been carried out
by the Archaeological Service of the East-Frisian Association (Ostfriesische
Landschaft) and the Institut für historische Küstenforschung (Institute for
Historic Coastal Research) among others.
3.1 Prehistoric and Medieval Times
At what time the Brookmerland was settled, and the form of that settlement
has not yet been identified. However, the climatic conditions were
favourable for the colonisation of the low land around 1000 AD. The
archaeological finds and geographical investigations into settlement
indicate that as early as the early Middle Ages, i.e. in the 9th/10th
centuries, the colonisation of the marsh began; it was extended in the 9th
and 11th centuries to the peat-bogs. The Geest border of the Brookmerland
offered the initial settlement a starting point for the Aufstreck-fields (ridge-and-furrow
field system). Here the settlers were provided with strips of land of an
exact width. The starting point for settlements of the Aufstreck-type
(linear street village) was the border between different types of soil; the
worked strips of land could thus be extended into the adjacent peatland.
This planned settlement reached its climax in the 12th/13th centuries,
especially as the Julian flood of 1164 forced many people to move inland
from the coast. Castles and stone houses were built only at the end of this
series of settlement movement. Whereas the peat-marsh and the hinterland
with its carr/ fen wood (Bruchwald / Wolden) and the highland peats were not
settled at first, there were settlements on the coast in the early Middle
Ages. As finds of ceramics with shell grit show, individual farm-dwelling
mounds were built in the peat-marsh west and north of the
Großes Meer (Woldmer
Meer). These individual farm-dwelling mounds survived until the late Middle
Ages. Presumably the point of departure for the settlement of the
silt-covered peat was in the marsh. Finds of ceramic fragments with
shell-grit in the peat and carr (Wolden) area of the Geest show that
attempts to colonise the bog involved the construction of mounds. Three of
four sites with ceramics of the 10th century also produced ceramics of the
more recent medieval periods. In the late Middle Ages the inhabitants of the
Aufstreck-settlements (linear street village) on the moor had to leave their
land because the water could not be drained off. The settlements of Burhafe
and Südwolde were abandoned, too. The Großes Meer came into being because of
the drainage which followed and the stripping of peat from the bog. The old
tracks connecting the Brookmerland with the Emsigerland could be used only
occasionally; in some cases they could not be used at all.
The Brokmer are mentioned for the first time in the Östring (Rasteder)
Chronicle of 1148; from 1251 the Brokmen appear as a separate community, the
Brokmerland. The region was divided into three districts with two main
churches each: Marienhof and
and Burhafe (nowadays individual farms in the Victorbur Marsh), as well as
Bedekaspel and Südwolde
(Blaukirchen). The parishes belonged to the diocese of Münster. The bishop
of Münster, who separated the Brookmerland from the deaneries of Uttum and
Hinte and made it in its own parish, finally erected a castle in Fehnhusen
in the parish of Engerhafe (the so-called
Oldeborg), which formed
the core of the present place. The rest of the colonised area with the
places Bastede, Bangstede, Ochtelbur, Riepe, Simonswolde and the Cistercian
monastery of Ihlow stayed with the Aurichland.
The Brookmerland had its own system of justice and with the Brookmer Letter
its own constitution, too. In all of this the political leadership and the
system of justice were, with the people living there, in the hands of the
farmers appointed as officials for a year, the so-called Red-jeven. In the
second half of the 14th century the powerful family, the Kenisnas, took over
the title of chieftain and hence power in the same area. The family, who
later adopted the name tom Brock, erected castles in Brooke and Aurich.
Towards the end of the 13th century the Aurichland joined the Brookmerland
and formed the fourth district of the Land community. The rule of the tom
Brock family was ended by the struggle for supremacy over the Frieslands on
both sides of the Ems, in which their chieftain Ocko II was defeated. The
rule of the victor, Focko Ukena, over the Brookmerland ended around 1430 in
a popular rising which developed into East Frisian uprising. On 14th
December 1430 the East Frisian National Associations (Landesverbände) and
the minor chieftains concluded the bond of liberty of the seven Frieslands
under the leadership of the Cirksena family. Around 1440 the Cirksenas had
progressed from being judges and guardians into the chieftains of the
Brookmerland and the Aurichland. In 1464 they succeeded in having the
emperor elevate their East Frisian territory to an imperial county. The
areas ruled by their castles became regional authorities. Now the
Brookmerland belonged to the district of Aurich and was made up of the North
Brookmer Protectorate (Osteel, Marienhafe, Siegelsum) and the South Brookmer
Protectorate (Engerhafe, Victorbur, Wiegboldsbur, Bedekaspel,
The principal settlement, Marienhafe, became a harbour for a time after the
severe storm floods of 1374 and 1377, so that goods could be transported
direct by water to the Münsterland. At the end of the 14th century pirates
around Klaus Stötebeker based themselves in Marienhafe, as the harbour had
been opened for the “victuallers”. The transhipment of the stolen goods was
only stopped by the punitive expeditions of the Hanseatic City of Hamburg.
However, by contrast to other East Frisian settlements Marienhafe was not
destroyed in the process.
The inhabitants of the Brookmerland attained considerable wealth with
farming, cattle breeding and trade. This was expressed particularly in the
building of brick churches in the region, every village competing in the
size and magnificence of their church. The churches of
Victorbur were built in
the middle of the 13th century. Their construction is a milestone in the
history of Frisian church building. The church in Marienhafe, Brookmerland’s
market centre even vied with the Osnabrück Cathedral and was the largest
church in north-western Germany. The lavish ruler’s box in its tower
expressed the way in which the Brookmer population regarded itself. Their
wealthy upper class felt themselves to be equal to the nobility. The present
condition of the churches in Osteel, Marienhafe and Engerhafe do not reflect
their original size, as these churches, which were gigantic in proportion to
the size of the population, were reduced in area even from the Middle Ages.
3.2 Early Modern Times
In 1744 the Brookmerland, together with the whole of East Frisia, felt to
Prussia. The division into the North and the South Brookmer Protectorates
was kept. A legal basis for the settlement of wasteland was created by the
Friedrich the Great’s edict of 22nd July 1765 to cultivate the land, which
led many landless inhabitants of the Brookmerland to hope that they could
support themselves by cultivating a piece of fenland. As early as 1765 the
first colonists settled in Leezedorf, where in the course of the years a
scattered settlement came into being. In 1767 the settlement of
Moordorf began with the
opening of a new area for settlement, the fehn colonies and in 1770 of
Münkeboe in the South
Brookmer Protectorate. These first colonies finally formed a number of
communities of a new type. On the other hand the areas of Norden and
Greetsiel profited from the dyke building of Ley Bay; Brookmerland’s profit
was slight. During the Napoleonic occupation (1806 – 1813) Brookmerland
belonged to the arrondissement of Aurich, first in the Dutch, then French
departement of Ostem. The northern part of the Brookmerland, as the mairie
of Marienhafe with Marienhafe, Upgant, Schott, Leezdorf and Tjüche, belonged
to the canton of Norden. The southern part of the Brookmerland was divided
into the mairie of Victorbur ((Victorbur, Uthwerdum, Marsch, Theene,
Neu-Ekels und Moordorf), Wiegboldsbur (Wiegboldsbur, Bedekaspel, Forlitz,
Blaukirchen and Moorhusen together with Westerende and Fahne) and Engerhafe
(Engerhafe, Marsch, Fehnhusen, Oldeborg, Upende) and belonged to the canton
After the wars of liberation the Brookmerland became part of East Frisia in
the kingdom of Hanover (1815 – 1866) and was divided according to Hanoverian
principles. Southern Brookmerland from Wiegboldsbur to Moorhusen together
with Bangstede, Westerende, Barstede, Ochtelbur and Riepe the
Sub-Protectorate Riepe of the Protectorate of Aurich. The parish of Osteel
of the former North Brookmer Protectorate of Norden. The middle of the
Brookmerland formed the Protectorate of Victorbur, which consisted of the
Sub-Protectorate of Victorbur (parishes of Victorbur and Engerhafe) and the
Sub-Protectorate of Marienhafe (parishes of Marienhafe and Siegelsum). On
the 1st of January 1828 the Sub-Protectorate of Marienhafe was added to
Norden. The boundary, which so arose between Aurich and Norden formed the
boundary of the district of Aurich until 31st July 1977.
Agriculture continued to play a decisive role. However, the yields in the
fenland colonies were at first slight because of massive problems with the
cultivation of the land. For a long time the digging of peat and its sale
provided people in these areas with a living. The economic situation in the
fen colonies improved in the 19th century due to improvements being made in
agricultural methods. Examples of constructions preserved from this period
are the mill built in Leezdorf in 1896/1897 and the twin-cylinder water pump
mill in Wirdum of 1872.
3.3 Modern Times
In 1938 there was community reform in South Brookmerland, in which the
earlier communities Engerhafe, Fehnhusen, Oldeborg and Uende made up the
larger community of Oldeborg. On the 1st August 1969 the local government
area of Brookmerland was founded, which consists of the communities of
Leezdorf, Marienhafe, Osteel, Rechtsupweg, Upgant-Schott and Wirdum. The
dwelling mound -village of Wirdum originally belonged to Greetsiel, later to
the former district of Emden and from 1932-1972 to the district of Norden,
but then decided to join the Brookmerland. The administrative centre of the
local government area with approxuimately 13.000 inhabitants is in
Marienhafe. The community of South Brookmerland was established on 1st July
1972: it consisted of the communities of: Bedekaspel, Forlitz-Blaukirchen,
Moordorf, Moorhusen, Münkeboe, Oldeborg, Theene, Uthwerdum, Victorbur and
Wiegboldsbur. The community of South Brookmerland has a population of
Economically, tourism is a priority alongside agriculture and small
commercial enterprises. The regional development of the Brookmerland,
particularly its southern part, is, however, influenced by the proximity of
the cities of Emden and Aurich. These two centres attract the majority of
commuters from the Brookmerland.
The Brookmerland was opened up for traffic as early as 1863 by the road
connection between Emden and Aurich as well as by the road branching from
this one, which connects with Norden. The federal roads B 72 and B 210 still
follow this route today. Around 1893 several country roads opened up further
areas of the Brookmerland. Brookmerland was connected to the railway network
in 1883 by the opening of lines between Emden and Aurich with its branch
line to Norden. The railway lines run directly parallel to the roads.
4. Modern development and planning
In its regional planning report for 2005 the Federal Office for Building and
Regional Planning lists the Brookmerland as a region which is marked by
strong economic growth worthwhile this development may not lead to an
increased use of space for settlements, which is accompanied by traffic
4.1 Land use
The structure of linear street villages (Aufstreck-settlement) is still well
preserved. These are farms, strung together, one after the other, on the
flat embankments used for settlement, which were intended to secure the edge
of the peatland. In Leezdorf the original development of the place as a
scattered village can still be recognised although a centre to the
settlement with a market place has developed. However new developments have
been built on the stripped peatland so changing the image of settlement
which is still characterised by the kilometres of arable fields. In
Marienhafe industrial and residential areas have been established which have
largely obscured the main road orientated towards the marketplace. Since
1979 the amount of land used for agriculture has fallen continually. Grain
is the most important crop; large areas are used for the growing of maize
and rape-seed as well as for pasturage. There are a few wind farms.
The Haneburg (Hane Castle)
in Upgant and Castle Upgant
are isolated examples of cultural monuments which have been preserved; both
of them originating from the 15th/16th century. The
Upgant and the
windmills are also
significant historic buildings in the landscape.
4.2 Settlement development
The population of the Brookmerland has risen since 1970. The Brookmerland is
characterised by its situation between the intermediate size centres of
Norden and Aurich and the regional centres of Emden designated by the
Regional Planning Programme of Lower Saxony (L-ROP). Aurich and Emden with
its Volkswagen works are the main workplaces for commuters from the
Tourism is an important constituent of the Brookmerland’s economy and is
marked by a rising number of overnight stays. The number of visitors is
strongly dependant on the season, as particularly summer tourism and
day-visitors make for a great many visitors. In addition many employed
people live only partly off tourism and small businesses play an important
role in facilitating these overnight stays.
Alongside agriculture and small industrial enterprises, tourism has
developed in South Brookmerland, particularly in the areas Bedekaspel and
Forlitz-Blaukirchen with the recreation areas “Großes Meer” and “Kleines
Meer”, into a significant economic factor. In these two places there are
approximately 600 weekend and holiday homes. In addition a yacht marina, two
camp-sites and an extensive network of bicycle tracks have been set up.
St. Mary’s church with its
Störtebeker-tower in Marienhafe is a significant structure although only the
central nave of the previous three naves of the vaulted, cruciform basilica
of the 13th century have survived, as large parts of the church had to be
demolished in 1822 because of dilapidation. The tower, too, which is said to
have served Störtebeker as a refuge from 1396-1401, had its top two storeys
removed. In the interior of the church the pulpit of 1669, and the organ
built by G. von Holy from 1712 to 1715 survive, and a museum room
commemorates Klaus Störtebeker. In addition there are mills in Marienhafe.
The mill at the Mühlenloog,
which can be visited, was built from 1770-1776 and heightened in 1821; the
mill in the area Tjüche
was built as a gallery windmill in 1895/96. Marienhafe has various sports
facilities as an infrastructure for tourism. A permanent exhibition of the
subject “Old Customs” is shown in the windmill at Leezedorf, a gallery mill.
The mill in Upgant-Schott can also be viewed. The second oldest organ in
East Frisia, built by Edo Evers in 1619, is in St. Warnfried’s church of the
community of Osteel. The church goes back to the 13th century. There is a
privately owned zoo in Rechtsupweg which may be visited. In 1996, 1999, 2002
and 2005 the Störtebeker Open Air Festival took place in the Brookmerland;
and there is now the so-called Störtebeker Tourist Route.
4.3 Industry and energy
The majority of industrial and commercial enterprises are small and
medium-sized firms. Besides workshops these are mainly service enterprises
and firms in the areas of electrical and mechanical engineering. Since 1979
the area used by commerce and industry has almost doubled in the
administrative area Brookmerland, and has even more than doubled in the
community South Brookmerland. The production of regenerative energy from
wind power is a growing market. Up to now only a very few wind farms have
been built, e.g. the wind farm of Reithamm with its 60 m high wind turbines
The only trans-regional structures which should be mentioned are the gas and
crude oil pipelines crossing the Brookmerland.
Traffic access to the Brookmerland is shaped by the connections between the
regional centre of Emden and the intermediate centres of Aurich and Norden.
Today’s main roads, the B210 and the B72 follow the route of the old roads
and go through the middle of the area of the Brookmerland north-south and
west-east. Both the two main roads are used every day by between 5.000 and
10.000 cars. The road and rail junction of Georgsheil is South Brookmerland
has an important function in the traffic access to the Brookmerland. The
other regions are accessed by Land and district roads. The nearest motorway
link is to the A31 near Emden.
Railway connections run parallel to federal roads. There is a railway
station in Marienhafe, which provides connections with regional trains on
the line from Emden to Norddeich-Mole, much frequented by tourists. Rail
traffic on the line Abelitz to Aurich ceased on the 30th April 1996. Areas
off the federal roads and thus the railway lines can only be reached by
public transport via the bus routes of the integrated transport system
The Ems-Jade Canal, built between 1880 and 1888, runs through the southern
edge of the Brookmerland. Having been used for some time mainly by sports
boats its economic importance for goods transport has grown again in recent
5. Legal and spatial planning aspects
The region of the Brookmerland is subject to the Regional Planning Programme
of the Land of Lower Saxony and the Regional Planning Programme set up by
the district of Aurich.
The local government area of the Brookmerland and the community of South
Brookmerland are part of East Frisia. This is the only community
organization (Höherer Kommunalverband) in Lower Saxony.
The construction of new housing estates on the stripped fenland, adjacent to
existing historic settlements, has created permanent changes in the
settlement pattern. Many of the settlements are still well preserved,
however the continuing pressure for development will make these vulnerable.
The construction of holiday villages constitutes a serious problem as far as
changes in the landscape in the Brookmerland are concerned.
The structural change in agriculture and the dependence of the future
direction of this branch of business on the agricultural policy of the EU
increases the trend towards intensification of production in the
Brookmerland. At the same time the proportion of land under protection or
land with restrictions on its use is leading to an increasing number of
farms closing because of insufficient yields. Falling numbers of people
employed in agriculture are leading to increasing commuter movement or the
drift from the areas concerned, as the labour market in the rural areas
cannot support the surplus work force. The nature of intensification and the
abandonment of the original function of farms results in the cultural
landscape being threatened by significant change.
6.3 Industry and energy
The debate on the setting up of wind farms has been growing in intensity in
the Brookmerland in recent years. The increasing pressure from the industry
on the communities to allocate land in their plans for wind farms is opposed
by a growing number of local initiatives. In each case applied for it is
essential to consider exactly in what form historic perspectives will change
and the image of the historic cultural landscape will be spoilt.
The possibilities for development of the rural areas are limited by the
nature of the Brookmerland’s position between the centres Emden, Norden and
Aurich. Yet the neighbouring town of Aurich suffers from the structural
weakness of the region. According to the data contained in the regional
planning report of 2005 the commuter movements in this region in the
direction of Emden are increasing significantly. In this context the problem
of insufficient traffic linkage, particularly in the eastern part of the
South Brookmerland, is clear. In economic terms the town of Aurich is
suffering due to this. The closure of the railway line from Abelitz to
Aurich is having a negative effect. Although demands have been made for
sometime for this connection to be reactivated and even the manufacturer of
wind-energy installations has offered to take over some of the costs
involved. However, this project is competing with one being discussed to
create a motorway connection by extending the A31 to Aurich. This projected
road would use part of the route of the disused railway. Building the
motorway according to this plan would have far reaching consequences for the
Brookmerland. First the Southbrookmerland would be cut through to a much
greater extent than at present. Secondly the communities east of Georgsheil
would have no chance of a rail connection. The problem would arise of
infrastructure coming into being which would be atypical of the area in
addition to the motorway route using more land than the railway, disturbing
the image of the landscape and probably causing the entire region to be
burdened by increasing traffic. Innovative traffic concepts are, however,
urgently needed in view of the increasing movements of commuters created by
the demands of industry and commerce for improved traffic linkage and of the
possible increase in tourism.
7.1 Strategic planning
To both protect and promote Brookmerland overall planning beyond the
boundaries of the single cultural landscapes has become increasingly
necessary. The crucial basis for the East Frisian area has been set up with
the establishment of the Regional Structure Conference East Frisia, which
amongst other things led to the founding of the Integrated Traffic System
Ems-Jade (EVS), and the Regional Innovation Strategy for Tourism. The
advantages of Krummhörn and its neighbouring region, can be increased and
its disadvantages decreased by the interlinking of the cycle tracks and
footpaths, as well as a programme range covering the single cultural
In the Brookmerland the forms of settlement and use of the landscape attuned
to life on the moorland and its periphery are still recognisable in many
aspects. The permanent interaction with the specific conditions of
settlement in this area can be identified as the cultural-historic heritage
in the landscape: village-dwelling mounds, linear street village-settlements
with adjacent fields, windmills and drainage channels reflect the settlement
history of the region.
An important pre-condition for maintaining the traditional structure of the
landscape and the buildings within it is the use of the land by private
individuals, tourism and agriculture. A chance of linking the two economic
branches, tourism and agriculture, could be the expansion of ecological
agriculture, as well as the inclusion and encouragement of farmers in
processes aimed at preserving the countryside. The growing of renewable raw
materials would offer further possibilities for development in agriculture.
Also the potential of nature protection could be an additional source of
income for agriculture, e.g. in the Grosses Meer region.
The great attractiveness of the Brookmerland for tourism is the potential
for economic development. The maintenance of the attractiveness of the
landscape and the improvement of the tourist infrastructure will create the
potential to improve the protection and management of the cultural heritage
assets and the historic landscape.
7.5 Nature conservation
There is potential for the cultural heritage to be incorporated within
management plans in those areas either protected as nature reserves or
proposed to become nature reserves.
Author: Wolfgang Scherf
Behre, K. E.: Die Veränderungen der niedersächsischen Küstenlinien in den
letzten 3000 Jahren und ihre Ursachen. Probleme der Küstenforschung 26,
Bundesamt für Bauwesen und Raumordnung (BBR) (2005): Raumordnungsbericht
2005. Berichte 21, Bonn 2005.
Heun, S.: Archäologische Untersuchungen auf dem Hüttenplatz in Lütetsburg,
Ldkr. Aurich. Archäologische Mitteilungen aus Nordwestdeutschland 18, 1995,
van Lengen, H.: Bauernfreiheit und Häuptlingsherrlichkeit im Mittelalter.
In: K.-E. Behre u. H. van Lengen (Hrsg.), Ostfriesland. Geschichte und
Gestalt einer Kulturlandschaft. Aurich 1995, 113-134.
van Lengen, H.: Burgenbau und Stadtentwicklung. Führer zu archäologischen
Denkmälern in Deutschland 35. Ostfriesland. Stuttgart 1999, 128-140.
Niedersächsisches Landesamt für Statistik: NLS-Online Tabelle K 6070411, K
6070412, Z 0000001
Reinhardt, W.: Die Orts- und Flurnamen Ostfrieslands in ihrer
siedlungsgeschichtlichen Entwicklung. In: J. Ohling (Hrsg.), Ostfriesland im
Schutze des Deiches 1. Pewsum 1969, 201-375.
Rödiger,H.-B., Ramm, H. 1979: Friesische Kirchen im Auricherland, Norderland,
Brokmerland und im Krummhörn, Jever 1979.
Schwarz, W.: Die Wurten- und Moorlandschaft am Großen Meer. Archäologische
Denkmäler zwischen Weser und Ems. Archäologische Mitteilungen aus
Nordwestdeutschland, Beiheft 34. Oldenburg 2000, 211-214.
Wassermann, E.: Aufstrecksiedlungen in Ostfriesland. Abhandlungen und
Vorträge zur Geschichte Ostfrieslands 61. Aurich 1985.
Wirth, K.: Ein Beitrag zur mittelalterlichen und frühneuzeitlichen
Besiedlung des Riepster Hammrichs, Gemeinde Ihlow, Landkreis Aurich. Offa
56, 1999, 105-119.
Full catalogue of historic maps used, survey evidence etc.
Karte des Nordwestlichen Teils von Ostfriesland. Herausgegeben vom
Generalmajor Le Coq 1805, Sect. III. Nachdruck 1984.
Wolden: former parishes Badekaspel, Forlitz and Blaukirchen in the low lying
area of the Grosse Meer.
Aufstreck-settlements: settlements set up on the basis of the Upstreek- law/
right (?) in accordance to which the length of a strip of land of a fixed
width could be extended ad libitum.